Skip to content →

Spinoza’s Ethics Summarized

Definition 7: That thing is called free which exists from the necessity of its nature alone, and is determined to act by itself alone. But a thing is called necessary, or rather compelled, which is determined by another to exist and to produce an effect in a certain and determinate nature.

Underlyers <==> free.

Derivatives <==> compelled.

Derivatives suffer passions, Underlyers have actions.

Try to be an underlyer, not a derivative

Published in blog